[ page update: 2021-IV-14  // 2021-VII-13, 14 // 2022-I-14; II-19,21; V-23; 2023-I-01,16; III-15,16; IV-21;VIII-15; IX-21, 24, 25; 2024-IV-26; mjw ]

On this page we include full citations for publications referenced on the pages associated with this Nomenclatura Oligochaetologica – Editio Secunda website. We also include citations for important historical and more recent works focusing on the taxonomy, systematics, physiology, distribution, and ecology of oligochaetes.  Many of these citations are linked to pdfs of the papers, or to their availability from open access journals and other literature websites. Citations for other important publications will be added here soon.  Many of the memoria and obituaries for oligochaetologists highlighted on the Dedicatio page of this website include citations for their research papers, books, and other published contributions to science.

Beddard, F.E. 1895. A monograph of the Order Oligochaeta. Clarendon Press, Oxford, England. i-xii + 769 pp. + 5 plates.

Blakemore R.J. 2006. Cosmopolitan earthworms – an eco-taxonomic guide to the peregrine species of the world, 2nd ed. Yokohama: VermEcology.

Blakemore R.J. 2008. An updated list of valid, invalid and synonymous names of Criodriloidea and Lumbricoidea (Annelida: Oligochaeta: Criodrilidae, Sparganophilidae, Ailoscolecidae, Hormogastridae, Lumbricidae, Lutodrilidae). In: Ito MT, Kaneko N, eds. A series of searchable texts on earthworm biodiversity, ecology and systematics from various regions of the world. Yokohama: Yokohama University, 1–80.

Blakemore, R.J. 2013. The major megadrile families of the World reviewed again on their taxonomic types (Annelida: Oligochaeta: Megadrilacea). Opuscula Zoologica (Budapest) 44(2): 107–127.

Blakemore, R.J. 2013. Restoration of London type of first earthworm – Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (Annelida: Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae), and setting aside of a ‘neo-neotype’. Opuscula Zoologica (Budapest) 44(2): 211–212.

Blakemore, R. J. and Kingston, T. J. 1997. Opisthogastric earthworms (Megascolecidae: Oligochaeta) and allied forms in north-western Tasmania. Journal of Natural History 31: 1683–1708.

Boros, G., and E. Sherlock. 2010. Catalogue of the enchytraeid worm collection (Oligochaeta: Enchytraeidae) of the Natural History Museum in London. I. Spirit collection. Opuscula Zoologica (Budapest) 41(1): 19–27.

Bouché, M.B. 1972. Lombriciens de France,  Écologie et Systématiques. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Publication 72-2. Paris, France, 671 pp.

Brinkhurst, R O. 1988. A taxonomic analysis of the Haplotaxidae (Annelida, Oligochaeta). Canadian Journal of Zoology 66(10):2243–2252. ^

Brinkhurst, R.O. 1989. A phylogenetic analysis of the Lumbriculidae (Annelida, Oligochaeta). Canadian Journal of Zoology 67: 2731–2739.

Brinkhurst, R.O. 1994. Evolutionary relationships within Clitellata: an update. Megadrilogica 5(10): 109–116.

Brinkhurst, R.O., and B.G.M. Jamieson. 1971. Aquatic Oligochaeta of the world. Univ. Toronto Press, Buffalo, New York. 860 pp. [Out of print; a classic reference if you can find a used copy].

Brinkhurst, R.O., and M.J. Wetzel. 1984. Aquatic Oligochaeta of the world: Supplement. Canadian Technical Report of Hydrography and Ocean Sciences No. 44. v + 101 pp.

Čekanovskaya, O.V. 1962. The aquatic Oligochaeta of the U.S.S.R. [Vodnye Maloshchetinkovye Chervy Fauni SSSR]. Key to the Fauna of the USSR 78. Akademiya Nauk SSSR Publishers, Moscow, Leningrad. [Translated from Russian, published for the United States Department of the Interior and the National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C., by Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India. TT 74-52039].  3-411 xxiv + 513 pp.  [also, Opred. Faune. S.S.S.R. 3-411]

Claparède, E.R. 1862. Recherches anatomiques sur les oligochètes. Mémoires de la Société de Physique et d’Histoire Naturelle de Genève 16(2): 217–291 + 4 plates.

Coates, K.A. 1986.  Redescription of the oligochaete genus Propappus, and diagnosis of the new family Propappidae (Annelida: Oligochaeta). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 99(3): 417–428. [ Propappidae – new family, p. 415 ]

Csuzdi, C. 2012. Earthworm species, a searchable database. Opuscula Zoologica (Budapest)43(1): 97-99.

Csuzdi, C., E. Rota, T. Szederjesi, E. Sherlock, G.G. Brown, C.-H. Chang, D.D. Cosin, C. Fragoso, B.G.M. Jamieson, Y. Hong, S.W. James, M.G. Paoletti, T. Pavlícek, D. Plisko, V.V. Pop, and H.-P. Shen. 2019.  Description of a new Central African earthworm, Petroscolex centenarius gen. et sp. nov. (Crassiclitellata, Eudrilidae), celebrating the 100th birthday of Pietro Omodeo. Zootaxa 4674(5): 501–508ZooBank. ^

Dózsa-Farkas, K. 1992. List of enchytraeid synonyma. Newsletter on Enchytraeidae 3: 16–46.

DriloBASE. 2021. The World earthworm database. Drilobase Project. Available from: (accessed 12 April 2021).

Dugès, A. 1828. Récherches sur la circulation, la respiration, et la reproduction des Annelides abranches. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris 1, 15: 284–337.

Dyne, G.R. and B.G.M. Jamieson. 2004. Native Earthworms of Australia II (Megascolecidae, Acanthodrilinae). ABRS, Australian Government Department of Environment and Heritage. 200 pp. ISBN 0 642 56839 1(CDROM). Available from Australian Biological Resources Study, GPO Box 787, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia [Email:] [abstract HERE]

Ehrenberg, C.G. 1828. Symbolae physicae seu icoes et descriptiones animalia evertebrata. Animalia evertebrata. Phytozoa. Decas, vol. 1.  Berolini, Berlin, Germany. 1–293 pp.

Envall, I., M. Källersjö, and C. Erséus. 2006. Molecular evidence for the non-monophyletic status of Naidinae (Annelida, Clitellata, Tubificidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 570–584.

Erséus, C. 1990. Cladistic analysis of the subfamilies within the Tubificidae (Oligochaeta). Zoologica Scripta 19: 57–63.

Erséus, C. 1999. Parvidrilus strayeri, a new genus and species, an enigmatic interstitial clitellate from underground waters in Alabama. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 112(2):327-337 [ Parvidrilidae – new family, p. 328 ]

Erséus, C. 2005. Phylogeny of oligochaetous Clitellata. Hydrobiologia 535/536: 357–372.

Erséus, C., I. Envall, M. Marchese, and L. Gustavsson. 2010. The systematic position of Opistocystidae Annelida, Clitellata) revealed by DNA data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 54: 309–313.

Erséus, C. and L. Gustavsson. 2002. A proposal to regard the former family Naididae as a subfamily within Tubificidae (Annelida, Clitellata). Hydrobiologia, 485: 253–254.

Erséus, C., L. Gustavsson, and R.O. Brinkhurst, R.O. 2005. Case 3305. Tubificidae Vejdovský, 1876 (Annelida, Clitellata): proposed precedence over Naididae Ehrenberg, 1828. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 62: 226–231.

Erséus, C., M. Källersjö, M. Ekman, M., and R. Hovmöller, R. 2002. 18S rDNA phylogeny of the Tubificidae (Clitellata) and its constituent taxa: dismissal of the Naididae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 22: 414–422.

Erséus, C., M. J. Klinth, E. Rota, P. De Wit, D.R. Gustavsson, and S. Martinsson. 2019. The popular model annelid Enchytraeus albidus is only one species in a complex of seashore white worms (Clitellata, Enchytraeidae). Organisms Diversity & Evolution 19(2): 105–133; the online version includes supplementary material.^

Erséus, C., T. Prestegaard, and M. Källersjö, M. 2000. Phylogenetic analysis of the Tubificidae (Annelida, Clitellata) based on 18S rDNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 15: 381–389.

Erséus, C., M.J. Wetzel, and L. Gustavsson. 2008. ICZN rules – a farewell to Tubificidae (Annelida, Clitellata). Zootaxa 1744: 66–68.^

Erséus, C., Williams, B.W., Horn, K.M., Halanych, K.M., Santos, S.R., James, S.W., Creuzé des Châtelliers, M., and Anderson, F.E. 2020. Phylogenomic analyses reveal a Palaeozoic radiation and support a freshwater origin for clitellate annelids. Zoologica Scripta, 49, 614–640.^

Fend, S.V. and R.O. Brinkhurst. 2010. Contributions towards a review of the genus Rhynchelmis  Hoffmeister (Clitellata: Lumbriculidae).  Zootaxa 2407: 1-27.^

Fend, S., and P. Rodriguez. 2020. New Eremidrilus species (Clitellata: Lumbriculidae) from western North America. Part 1, species with two spermathecal segments.  Zootaxa 4809 (1): 111–131.

Fend, S., B.T. Hutchins, R. Gibson, B.F. Schwartz, and P.H. Diaz. 2023. New species of Lumbriculidae (Clitellata) from groundwater-dependent habitats in Texas. Zoosymposia 23: 52–77. ZooBank.^

Fend, S.V., P. Rodriguez, A. Achurra, and C. Erséus. 2017. On Kincaidiana Altman, 1936 and  Guestphalinus Michaelsen, 1933 (Annelida, Clitellata, Lumbriculidae), with the descriptions of three new species. European Journal of Taxonomy 361: 1–46.^

Fletcher, J. J. 1887. Notes on Australian earthworms-Part IV. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 2 (2): 601-620.

Friend, H. 1899. Bristish well-worms, (Phreoryctes), with especial reference to a unique specimen from Chelmsford, Essex. The Essex Naturalist, 11, 1-9.

Friend, H. .1912. V.– British Tubificidae. Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society 32(3): 265-293.

Gates, G.E. 1962. On some earthworms of Eisen’s collections. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Zoology (4), 31: 185–225.

Gates, G.E. 1972. Burmese earthworms. An introduction to the systematics of megadrile oligochaetes with special references to south-east Asia. Trans. American Philos. Soc. 62(7): 1–326.

Gates, G.E. 1982. Farewell to North American megadriles. Megadrilogica 4(1-2): 12–77.

Graefe, U. and J. Römbke. 1985. Checklist of new taxa 1960-1985. Newsletter on Enchytraeidae 1: 2–15.

Grube, E. [1850] 1851. Die Familien der Anneliden, mit Angabe ihrer Gattungen und Arten. Ein Systematischer Versuchungen.  Verlag der Nicolai’schen Buchhandlung, Berlin. 1–164.

Hemprich, F.G., and C.G. Ehrenberg. 1831. In Ehrenberg, C. G. 1828 and 1831. Symbolae Physicae, seu leones et descriptiones Corporum Naturalium novorum aut minus cognitorum, quae ex itineribus  per Libyam, Aegyptum, Nubiam, Dongelam, Syriam, Arabiam et Habessiniam. Berolini.

Holmquist, C. 1985.  A revision of the genera Tubifex Lamark, Ilyodrilus Eisen, and Potamothrix Vejdovský & Mrázek (Oligochaeta, Tubificidae), with extensions to some connected genera. Zoologische Jahrbücher Abteilung für Systematik Ökologie und Geographie der Tiere, Jena, 112(3): 311–366.

Hrabě, S. 1982. Contribution to the knowledge of Oligochaeta from the Lake Baikal. Věstník Československé Společnosti Zoologické 46(3): 174–193.

Hutchings, P., and N. Lavesque. 2020. I know who you are, but do others know? Why correct scientific names are so important for the biological sciences. Zoosymposia 19: 151–163.

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature [ICZN]. 1999. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, 4th ed. Published by the International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, c/o The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, United Kingdom. xxix + 306 pp. [provisions of this Code supersede those of previous editions with effect from 1 January 2000]. ^

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature [ICZN]. 2007. Opinion 2167 (Case 3305). Naididae Ehrenberg, 1828 (Annelida, Clitellata): precedence over Tubificidae Vejdovský, 1876 maintained. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 64: 71–72. ^

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature [ICZN]. 2018. Opinion 2423 (Case 3689) – Cognettia Nielsen & Christensen, 1959 (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Enchytraeidae): conditional precedence given over Euenchytraeus Bretscher, 1906 and Chamaedrilus Friend, 1913. Bulletin of
 Zoological Nomenclature 75 (31 December 2018): 279–281.^

James, S.W. 2012. Re-erection of Rhinodrilidae (Benham, 1890, a senior synonym of Pontoscolecidae James, 2012 (Annelida: Clitellata). Zootaxa 3540: 67–68.^ [ Rhinodrilidae – new family, p. 67 ]

James, S.W. and Davidson, S.K. 2012. Molecular phylogeny of earthworms (Annelida: Crassiclitellata) based on 28S, 18S and 16S gene sequences. Invertebrate Systematics 26: 213–229.^

James, S.W., M.L.C. Bartz, D.W.G. Stanton, A.C. Conrado, L. Dupont, S. Taheri, E. Da Silva, and G.G. Brown. 2019. A neotype for Pontoscolex corethrurus (Müller, 1857) (Clitellata). Zootaxa 4545(1): 124–132; ZooBank.^

Jamieson, B.G.M. 1978. Phylogenetic and phenetic systematics of the opisthoporous Oligochaeta (Annelida: Clitellata). Evolutionary Theory 3(4):195–233.

Jamieson, B.G.M. 1988. On the phylogeny and higher classification of the Oligochaeta. Cladistics 4: 367–410.

Jamieson, B.G.M. 1994a. The indigenous earthworms (Megascolecidae: Oligochaeta) of Tasmania. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Zoology 26: 201–328.

Jamieson, B.G.M. 2000. Native earthworms of Australia (Megascolecidae, Megascolecinae). Science Publishers, Inc., Enfield, New Hampshire 03748, U.S.A. I–VII {authors introduction to monograph, CD ROM and downloadable sections} + i–xlix {authors prefaces} + 1,526 pp. This monograph, in 6 parts, can be downloaded (under book # 11) from HERE.

Jamieson, B.G.M., C. Erséus, and M. Ferraguti. 1987. Parsimony analysis of the phylogeny of some Oligochaeta (Annelida) using spermatozoal ultrastructure. Cladistics 3: 145–155.

Jamieson, B.G.M., S. Tillier, A. Tillier, J.-L. Justine, E. Ling, K. McDonald, and A.F. Hugall. 2002. Phylogeny of the Megascolecidae and Crassiclitellata (Annelida, Oligochaeta): combined versus partitioned analysis using nuclear (28S) and mitochondrial (12S, 16S) rDNA. Zoosystema 24:  707–734.

de Jong, Y., Kouwenberg J, Boumans L, Hussey C, Hyam R, Nicolson N, Kirk P, Paton A, Michel E, Guiry M, Boegh P, Pedersen H, Enghoff H, von Raab-Straube E, Güntsch A, Geoffroy M, Müller A, Kohlbecker A, Berendsohn W, Appeltans W, Arvanitidis C, Vanhoorne B, Declerck J, Vandepitte L, Hernandez F, Nash R, Costello M, Ouvrard D, Bezard-Falgas P, Bourgoin T, Wetzel F, Glöckler F, Korb G, Ring C, Hagedorn G, Häuser C, Aktac N, Asan A, Ardelean A, Borges P, Dhora D, Khachatryan H, Malicky M, Ibrahimov S, Tuzikov A, De Wever A, Moncheva S, Spassov N, Chobot K, Popov A, Boršić I, Sfenthourakis S, Köljalg U, Uotila P, Olivier G, Dauvin J, Tarkhnishvili D, Chaladze G, Tuerkay M, Legakis A, Peregovits L, Gudmundsson G, Olafsson E, Lysaght L, Galil B, Raimondo F, Domina G, Stoch F, Minelli A, Spungis V, Budrys E, Olenin S, Turpel A, Walisch T, Krpach V, Gambin M, Ungureanu L, Karaman G, Kleukers R, Stur E, Aagaard K, Valland N, Moen T, Bogdanowicz W, Tykarski P, Węsławski J, Kędra M, M. de Frias Martins A, Abreu A, Silva R, Medvedev S, Ryss A, Šimić S, Marhold K, Stloukal E, Tome D, Ramos M, Valdés B, Pina F, Kullander S, Telenius A, Gonseth Y, Tschudin P, Sergeyeva O, Vladymyrov V, Rizun V, Raper C, Lear D, Stoev P, Penev L, Rubio A, Backeljau T, Saarenmaa H, and Ulenberg S. 2015. PESI – a taxonomic backbone for Europe. Biodiversity Data Journal 3: e5848.

Klinth M.J., S. Martinsson, and C. Erséus. 2017. Phylogeny and species delimitation of North European Lumbricillus (Clitellata, Enchytraeidae). Zoologica Scripta 46: 96–110.

Klinth, M.J., E. Rota, and C. Erséus. 2017. Taxonomy of North European Lumbricillus (Clitellata, Enchytraeidae). ZooKeys 703: 15–96.

Lamarck, J.B. 1816. Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres 3. Verdière, Paris. 585 pp.

Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema naturae per regna tris naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, Edition decima, reformata. Tom I. Laurentii Salvii, Sverige: Holmiae, 824 pp.

Lastočkin, D.A. 1921. Issledovanija po faune Ivanovo-Voznesenskoj gubernii, organizovannye sel’ sko-hozjajstvennym fakul’ tetom I.-V. P. I. letom 1920 goda. 2. Fauna Oligochaeta limicola rajona issledovanija. Izvestija Ivanovo- Voznesenskogo Politehnieskogo Instituta 4: 70–77.

Lastočkin, D.A. 1924. Novye i redkie Copepoda i Oligochaeta v faune Ivanovo-Voznesenskoj gubernii. Izvestija Rossijskogo gidrologi…eskogo instituta 9: 1–22. [New and rare Copepoda and Oligochaeta from Central Russia (Ivanovo-Voznesensk Government).]

Lamarck, J.-B. P. A. de M., C. de. 1816. Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres. Vol. 3. Verdière, Paris, France. 585 pp.

Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae. 10th edition. Systema naturae per regna tris naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, Edition decima, reformata. Tom I. Laurentii Salvii, Sverige: Holmiae, 824 pp.

Ljungström, P.-O. 1970. Introduction to the study of earthworm taxonomy. Pedobiologia 10: 265–285.

Liu, Y., S.V. Fend, S. Martinsson, and C. Erséus. 2017. Extensive cryptic diversity in the cosmopolitan sludge worm Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (Clitellata, Naididae).  Org. Divers. Evol. 17: 477–495.

Mack, J.M., M. Klinth, S. Martinsson, R. Lu, H. Stormer, P. Hanington, H.C. Proctor, C. Erséus, and A.E. Bely. 2023. Cryptic carnivores: Intercontinental sampling reveals extensive novel diversity in a genus of freshwater annelids. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 182 (2023) 107748.^

Magalhães, W.F.,  P. Hutchings, A. Oceguera-Figueroa, P. Martin, R.M. Schmelz, M.J. Wetzel, H. Wiklund,  N.J. Maciolek, G.Y. Kawauchi, and J.D. Williams. 2021. Segmented worms (Phylum Annelida): a celebration of twenty years of progress through Zootaxa and call for action on the taxonomic work that remains. Zootaxa 4979(1): 190–211. 

Marchán, D.F.; Jiménez, S.; Decaëns, T.; Domínguez, J. 2021. Systematic revision of Gatesona (Crassiclitellata, Lumbricidae), an endemic earthworm genus from the Massif Central (France). PLoS ONE 16(9): e0255978.^^

Martin, P. 2001. On the origin of the Hirudinea and the demise of the Oligochaeta. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London, B, 268: 1089–1098.

Martin, P. 2015. L’arbre du vivant: classification phylogénétique des Annélides. In: Martin, P.,  Nadot, S. & Daugeron, C. (Eds.), L’arbre du vivant, trente ans de systématique. Paris, France: Editions Matériologiques, pp. 49–67.

Martin, P., E. Martínez-Ansemil, A. Pinder, T. Timm, and M.J. Wetzel. 2008. Global diversity of oligochaetous clitellates (“Oligochaeta”; Clitellata) in freshwater. Pp. 117–127, In: E.V. Balian, >C. Lévêque, H. Segers & K. Martens, eds. Freshwater Animal Diversity Assessment. Hydrobiologia 595(1): 117–127.

Martin, P., E. Martinez-Ansemil, A. Pinder, T. Timm & M.J. Wetzel. 2016 (December 15). World checklist of freshwater Oligochaeta species. World Wide Web electronic publication. Available online at: [date accessed] [this is an online update of the authors’ 2008 publication {cited immediately above}, with support from FADA [Freshwater Animal Diversity Assessment Initiative].^

Martin, P., E. Martínez-Ansemil, and B. Sambugar. 2010. The Baikalian genus Rhyacodriloides in Europe: phylogenetic assessment of Rhyacodriloidinae subfam. n. within the Naididae (Annelida). Zoologica Scripta 39(5): 462–482. [ Rhyacodriloidinae – new subfamily, p. 67 ] ^

Martin, P., P. Omodeo, and E. Rota. 2021.  On the nomenclatural status of some species of  Haplotaxidae (Clitellata) from Guinea. Zootaxa 4920(1): 147-150. ZooBank.^

Martin, P., G. Sonet, N. Smitz, and T. Backeljau. 2019. Phylogenetic analysis of the Baikalodrilus  species flock (Annelida: Clitellata: Naididae), an endemic genus to Lake Baikal (Russia). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 187(4): 987–1015.^

Martinsson, S.; Rota, E.; Erséus, C. 2015a. Revision of Cognettia (Clitellata, Enchytraeidae):  re-establishment of Chamaedrilus and description of cryptic species in the sphagnetorum   complex. Systematics and Biodiversity 13(3): 257–277.^

Michaelsen, W. 1900. Oligochaeta. Das Tierreich – Eine Zusammenstellung und Kennzeichnung der rezenten Tierformen. Vol. 10. [The Animal Kingdom. A compilation and identification of the extant animal forms]. Lieferung. Friedländer, Berlin. xxix + 575 pp.

Michaelsen, W. 1907a. Oligochaeten von Australien. Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der Naturwissenschaften, herausgegeben vom Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein in Hamburg 19 (1): 1–25.

Michaelsen, W. 1907b. Oligochaeta, in: Die Fauna Südwest-Australiens (W. Michaelsen and R. Hartmeyer., Eds.), Gustav Fischer, Jena, pp. 117–232.

Michaelsen, W. 1908. Zur Kenntnis der Tubiflciden. Archiv für Naturgeschichte. Verlags-Buchhandlung R. Stricker, Berlin  74(1): 129–162; + Tafel III.  

Misirlioğlu, M., J.W. Reynolds, M. Stojanović, T. Trakić, J. Sekulić, S.W. James, C. Csuzdi, T. Decaëns, E. Lapied, H.R.P. Phillips, E.K. Cameron, and G.G. Brown. 2023.  Earthworms (Clitellata, Megadrili) of the world: an updated checklist of valid species and families, with notes on their distribution. Zootaxa 5255 (1): 417–438.^

Müller, O.F. 1774. Vermium terrestrium et fluviatilium, seu Animalium Infusoriorum, Helminthicorum  et Testaceorum, non marinorum, succincta Historia, 1773-1774. Havniae & Lipsiae. 1–214.

Nakamura, Y. 2000. Checklist of enchytraeids (Oligochaeta: Enchytraeidae) of the world. Tohoku National Agricultural Experiment Station, Miscellaneous Publication No. 24: 29–104.

Nielsen, C. 2012. Animal Evolution. Third Edition. Oxford, University Press. 409 pp.

Nielsen, C.O. and B. Christensen. 1959. The Enchytraeidae. Critical revision and taxonomy of European species. (Studies on Enchytraeidae VII). Natura Jutlandica 8-9: 1–160.

Nielsen, C.O. and B. Christensen. 1961. The Enchytraeidae. Critical revision and taxonomy of European species. Supplement 1. Natura Jutlandica 10: 1–23.

Nielsen, C.O. and B. Christensen. 1963. The Enchytraeidae. Critical revision and taxonomy of European species. Supplement 2. Natura Jutlandica 10: 1–19.

Nozaki, M. and Y. Nakamura. 2005. Additional list of Enchytraeidae species (Annelida: Oligochaeta) since 1999. Mem. Fac. Agr. Ehime Univers. 50: 11–17.

Nxele, T.C.; J.D. Plisko, T. Mwabvu, and T.O. Zishiri. 2016. A new family Kazimierzidae for the genus Kazimierzus, earlier recorded to the composite Microchaetidae (Annelida, Oligochaeta). African Invertebrates 57(2): 111–117.^  [ Kazimierzidae – new family, p. 113]

Omodeo, P. 1998. History of Clitellata. Italian Journal of Zoology 65: 51–73.

Omodeo, P. 2000. Evolution and biogeography of megadriles (Annelida, Clitellata). Italian Journal of Zoology 67(2): 179–201.

Plisko, J.D. 2013. A new family Tritogeniidae for the genera Triogenia and Michalakus, earlier< accredited to the composite Microchaetidae (Annelida: Oligochaeta). African Invertebrates  54(1): 69–92. [ Tritogeniidae – new family, p. 79 ]

Prantoni, A., P.C. Lana, and C. Erséus. 2017. Global checklist of species of Grania (Clitellata: Enchytraeidae) with remarks on their geographic distribution. European Journal of Taxonomy 391: 1–44.^

Read, G.B. 2019. 1. A History of Annelida Research. In: Purschke, G., Böggemann, M., and Westheide, W. (Eds.). Handbook of Zoology, Annelida, volume 1: Annelida Basal Groups and  Pleistoannelida, Sedentaria I. De Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 3–36.

Reynolds, J.W. 1980. The earthworm family Sparganophilidae (Annelida, Oligochaeta) in North America. Megadrilogica 3(12): 189–204.

Reynolds, J.W. 2008. The earthworm family Sparganophilidae (Annelida: Oligochaeta) in North America, revisited. Megadrilogica 12(9): 125–143.

Reynolds, J.W. and D.G. Cook. 1976. Nomenclatura Oligochaetologica. A catalogue of names, descriptions and type specimens of the Oligochaeta. Univ. New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick. x + 217 p. [N.O.]  [Out of Print]

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WoRMS. WoRMS Editorial Board (2024). World Register of Marine Species. Accessed 2022-I-14;   Click here to access Annelida listings.

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